How to protect a hunting dog from pyroplasmosis
Autumn is considered the best time for hunting forest feathered game with a hunting dog. But at this time, again, there is an activation of ticks that carry dangerous diseases, including piroplasmosis.
For some reason, there is a widespread belief among hunters that it is only necessary to protect your four-legged friend from ticks in the spring, although according to statistics, it is in the autumn period that more dogs become infected and die.
Piroplasmosis is a non-infectious disease of dogs that causes the simplest organism Babesia canis and that occurs after the bite of ixod ticks, so infection from other animals is impossible. Pathogens are found in the tick’s saliva, and once in the blood through the wound, they begin to multiply in red blood cells, which causes their destruction. Those periods of the year when the average daily temperature is set at 10ºc (this is April-June and August-September) are the most dangerous, because at this time there are outbreaks of piroplasmosis in dogs.
Methods of disease prevention
Since existing methods of prevention of piroplasmosis can not provide full protection of animals, and after the disease does not occur stable immunity, you need to try to protect the dog from tick bites, thereby reducing the risk of disease.
To do this, produce an external treatment of the animal’s hair with drugs that repel or kill parasites. This method of prevention is the most acceptable, reliable and harmless enough, besides, it is easy and simple to use. The effectiveness of this method is about 80-90% if the treatment was performed on time and carefully. Use the following tools:
Drops. Drip according to the instructions on the withers such drugs as Vectra 3D, Advantix, Practitioner, Mr. Bruno, Promeris 1 time a month. They begin to act in a few days;
Collar. It is advisable to purchase collars from ectoparasites Kiltix and Scalibor, which should be worn constantly throughout the season from 1 to 7 months. The collar is put on tightly enough that there is a gap of about two fingers between it and the neck of the animal. Previously, it is stretched evenly along the length. It does not begin to act immediately, so you should wear the collar a few days before you go hunting;
Spray. The effect of this tool begins immediately and can last up to 2 weeks, but with careful processing, there are usually problems, since it is difficult to carry out it.
For better protection of dogs from ticks, it is recommended to combine means, for example, you can carry out basic treatment with drops and strengthen their effect with a collar or spray the wool with a small amount of spray before going to places where there are a lot of parasites. In order to avoid overdose, it is advisable to carry out the treatment in 4-5 days.
Therapeutic preparations for pyroplasmosis and their use
This method of preventing dogs from pyroplasmosis is considered the most harmful, since the drugs are mostly toxic and they do not work for long, within one week. It is recommended to conduct it immediately before leaving for hunting in places where a large number of parasites is possible.
Active ingredients in these drugs are imidokarb and desigin, they are available under the title: verian, azidin, berenil, imizol, perasan, neozidin pyro-stop, and others.
Vaccination of dogs against pyroplasmosis
Such prevention is carried out in regions where there is a risk of infection of almost all animals. The vaccine may be used more widely in the near future. To do this, use the following drugs:
“Pirogov”. The composition of this vaccine includes the selected antigen piroplasm, thanks to which dogs are immune to the disease. It fully develops after twice using the drug in 2 weeks and can persist for up to 6 months. Revaccination is recommended 3-4 weeks after the first injection of the drug, and then every six months. There may be a slight swelling at the injection site and around it, passing spontaneously for several days. Some dogs do not eat well after vaccination and become apathetic, but these ailments also pass quickly. If hypersensitivity to the drug occurs in some cases (very rarely), symptomatic treatment is required.
“Nobivac Piro”. This vaccine neutralizes the toxin that parasites secrete, meaning it does not protect the animal from the disease, but helps to transfer piroplasmosis more gently and reduces the likelihood of death.
When vaccinating dogs, the following recommendations should be followed:
To introduce drugs to animals under the age of 5 months (“Pirogov”) and six months (“Nobivac Piro»);
Deworming in 2 weeks;
The dog must be healthy for 2-3 weeks before the introduction of drugs and at the time of the vaccination itself.
If the animal has chronic diseases that are accompanied by immunodeficiency (autoimmune processes, dermatosis, etc.), then vaccination may be less effective. Do not administer drugs during pregnancy and lactation.
If the animal has been ill with piroplasmosis or has been injected with specific drugs that destroy piroplasm, then vaccination can be carried out only after 2 months. Moreover, in dogs who have been ill, you should first do a blood test and examine them for babesiosis (PCR).
The first vaccination is carried out twice with a break of 3-4 weeks if “Pirodog” is used, and up to 6 weeks when “nobivak Piro”is administered. The formation of immunity begins 2 weeks after the second vaccination. Subsequently, vaccination is carried out after six months, and if there is a small probability of disease every 12 months.
Drug “Nobivac Piro” also contains the antigen of Babesia canis (included in “Pirogov”), and the antigen of Babesia rossi. This allows you to more effectively protect the animal from pyroplasmosis, but creates a greater likelihood of side effects.
The first vaccination is preferably carried out 45-60 days before the activation of ticks, then by the time of the dangerous season the dog will already be protected, and repeated vaccinations will fall on the summer period, when the parasites have a decline in activity.
At least 2-3 weeks should pass between vaccinations for pyroplasmosis and other diseases. Although with the drug “Pirogov” you can enter and vaccine against leptospirosis and rabies, but injections do in different places.
In a vaccinated animal with the disease, symptoms may be expressed weakly or not at all noticeable, so in the season of tick activity, if the dog has the slightest malaise, an analysis should be carried out to detect piroplasmosis.
Since vaccination only reduces the number of deaths, and does not prevent the occurrence of the disease itself, treatment from ticks is necessary. But there should be a break of several days between the two preventive procedures.